External possession is a phenomenon where a nominal is syntactically encoded as a verbal dependent but semantically understood as the possessor of one of its The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Syntax, Second Edition External possession is a phenomenon where a nominal is syntactically encoded as a verbal dependent but semantically understood as the possessor of one of its co‐arguments. While the general pattern is cross‐linguistically very common, there is much variation in its precise syntax and semantics In addition to the observed difference in Case-marking on external possessors, Japanese and Korean further differ radically from most other languages which permit external possession constructions. They allow an indefinitely large number of external possessors, one possessor modifying another which immediately follows it. This is demonstrated below. The following examples all contain more than. are three coding strategies for the external possessor: (i) the 'dative-like' marking -u (ii) the accusative marking -ta (iii) the locative oblique marking -t •The most common EP constructions involve the last two patterns. Unlike the accusative EP, the locative EP shows some but not all the syntactic privileged of direct core arguments, i.e., language-specific construction. Outline: §2. The Syntax of External and Internal Possessor Variation in German Inalienable Possession Vera Lee-Schoenfeld (University of Georgia) Abstract: Given the use of certain inherently directional verbs, German possession constructions with a PP-embedded body part as possessum come in three variants: (1) with external possessor (EP), (2) with internal possessor (IP), and (3) with doubly-marked.
dative external possessor construction in French and German and other European languages. The example (8) is French. (8) Je lui ai coupé les cheveux (Guéron 1985: 59) I him.DAT have cut the hair 'I cut his hair.' In the dative external possessor construction, a possessor of a body part noun is realized as a dative that is not a part of the same phrase as the noun. Haspelmath (1999) says. Type B: external possessor is trigger by information structure and discourse German and French bear Genitive Case marking (see the examples in (5) and (6)). • In addition to the dative possessors, Bulgarian has morphologically specified full possessive pronouns and so-called adjectival possessors that are derived via the relational morphemes -ov/-in. These morphemes are lexically. In certain cases, possessor-denoting phrases surface external to possessum DPs, and in the most challenging of these, this occurs without the presence of any type of possessive verb (e.g., have, own). Payne and Barshi (1999a) group these exceptions under the heading of external possession. A well-known type of example, the ''possessor dative construction'' in German, and a less-well. (1) It is necessary to update the existing indications on signs at external air border crossing points marking the channels for persons entering and/or leaving the territory of the Member States contained in Schengen Executive Committee Decision SCH/COM-EX(94) 17, rev 4 of 22 December 1994, in order to take account of the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of the Agreement between the.
Possessor, known in the United States as Possessor: Uncut, is a 2020 science fiction psychological horror film written and directed by Brandon Cronenberg. An international co-production of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, the film stars Andrea Riseborough , Christopher Abbott , Rossif Sutherland , Tuppence Middleton , Sean Bean , and Jennifer Jason Leigh External possession is a configuration in which a possessor is realized outside the NP headed by the possessum noun and appears as a verbal argument or adjunct (cf. König and Haspelmath 1998, Payne and Barshi 1999). Examples (1) for German and (2) for Estonian show the contrast between NP-internal (a) and external (b) possession. (1) a An external possessor construction (EPC) is a construction where the possessor is expressed in a constituent external to the possessum NP (e.g., Chappell & McGregor 1996, Payne & Barshi 1999), unlike in an internal possessor construc-tion (IPC), where the possessor is expressed as a dependent of or an affix on the possessum noun. In an EPC, the possessive relation between the two entities is 1. The only head that special possessor-raising morphology could be marking in structures like is μ, and the function of μ involves considerations of case that are not specific to external possession. Whenever additional sources of case are needed within vP, μ is expected to appear. Looking at things from the other direction, the presence of μ—which is clearly marked in the verb in these.
External possessors in the dative are prototypical possessors, that is, they are animate, most often human. 2 As I have already remarked above, Havers (1911) gives abundant data for all ancient Indo-European languages except Anatolian and Tocharian, data which indicate that the dative external possessor in the categories (i)-(iii) and (v) was especially frequent for first and second person. Externe Possessoren. Die Alienabilität (von engl.: alienable = veräußerbar) ist eine in vielen Sprachen gebräuchliche Unterscheidung zwischen veräußerbarem (alienablem bzw. nichtorganisch possessivem) und unveräußerlichem (inalienablem bzw. organisch possessivem) Besitz.. Der besessene Gegenstand wird als Possessum, der Besitzer als Possessor bezeichnet It has been hypothesized (König&Haspelmath 1998, Haspelmath 1999) that external possessor (EP) datives, as exemplified in (1), are an areal property of Central and Southern Europe and do not occur elsewhere. The present study argues that this generalization is a side effect of more a basic typological parameter predominant in that region dependent: -marking on the clause level. Dependent.
In head-marking, the head of an inalienable possession construction (the possessed noun) is marked, but in dependent-marking, the dependent (the possessor noun) is marked. Theories of representation in syntax. Since the possessor is crucially linked to an inalienable noun's meaning, inalienable nouns are assumed to take their possessors as a semantic argument. Possessors (to either alienable. External Possession Constructions (EPCs) are found in nearly all parts of the world and across widely divergent language families. The data-rich papers in this first-ever volume on EPCs document their typological variability, explore diachronic reasons for variations, and investigate their functions and theoretical ramifications. EPCs code the possessor as a core grammatical relation of the.
This paper focuses on external possessor constructions involving body parts (Heine 1997; Payne & Barshi 1999; Haspelmath 1999; Lødrup 2009). In the constructions in (2), the possessor occurs within a constituent separate from that which contains the body, there is no possessive verb, the body part is marked by the (general) locative postposition -po, and the coding of the possessor varies. geographically limited, but because the external possessor cannot act as a passive-PSA. Outline §2 Simple clauses in Yaqui §3 Typical possessive constructions in Yaqui §4 External possessive constructions (EPCs) §5 An (ongoing) analysis of Yaqui EPCs §6 Final comments. 2. SIMPLE CLAUSES IN YAQUI Yaqui is an agglutinative, accusative, dependent-marking, head-final language. Direct and. When the possessor is marked with the accusative case marker in Korean (the so-called possessor raising construction), this one-to-one mapping fails. This unusual case marking is recognized as being conditioned by 'inalienability', 'affectedness' and 'entailment' (Kim 1999; Kang 1998; Cho 2002). However, I claim that the genitive case marker, the accusative case marker, and the zero case. (ii) W hen there is no overt possessor and the definite article is present, the interpretation of this DP is strictly exhaustive . x In this case there is either pro -drop or there is an external possessor in the dative . (iii) W hen there is no overt possessor and no definite article
This volume is the first systematic, corpus-based examination of dative external possessors in Old and Early Middle English and their diachronic development. Modern English is unusual among European languages in not having a productive dative external possessor construction, whereby the possessor is in the dative case and behaves like an element of the sentence rather than part of the. This contrasts with case-marking on external possessors, which take on an argument function in the clause and are case-marked accordingly, for instance with accusative. Internal possessors of direct objects form a constituent with the head of the object phrase, as indicated by word order. KEY SOURCES . Deal, Amy Rose. 2013. 'Possessor raising', Linguistic Inquiry 44(3): 391-432. Rude, Noel. This chapter presents the results of fieldwork and research on the relational inflection in Cree (Cenerini 2014). This form is functionally and formally similar to External Possessor Constructions (EPCs) in Romance and Germanic languages: they both acknowledge participants who are not syntactically licensed by the verb, but that the Speaker perceives to be topical, or particularly affected by. Externe Ressourcen Es sind keine externen Ressourcen hinterlegt. Volltexte (frei zugänglich) Es sind keine frei zugänglichen Volltexte in PuRe verfügbar . Ergänzendes Material (frei zugänglich) Es sind keine frei zugänglichen Ergänzenden Materialien verfügbar. Zitation Haspelmath, M. (2013). Marking of possessor noun phrases. In S. M. Michaelis, P. Maurer, M. Haspelmath, & M. Huber.
3.4. External possessors 1919 Possessive constructions apart from the three izafet constructions are used very rarely The closest Bashkir gets to external possessor constructions: agentive verbs of contact possessor in a lexically subcategorized position body-part in a peripheral adjunct-like position (8b) possessor can be non-specific indefinite. (For a modified version of this theory, see Alberti (1995).) Den Dikken (1999) and É. Kiss (2000) challenged Szabolcsi's claim that -nak/nek marked external possessors are in the nominative case, and their -nak/nek suffix is assigned by D to mark their operator role . Other languages only allow possessors to be expressed as non-core participants. This task explores possibilities for the encoding of possessors and other related roles such as beneficiaries. The materials consist of a sequence of.